The high-speed centrifuge rotor will produce large thermal stress in the process of quick starting, which will affect the thermal fatigue life of the rotor. Combining the genetic algorithm with the thermal analysis of the rotor structure, the temperature rise control curve in the process of quick starting of the rotor is optimized. The optimization process takes the maximum thermal stress of the rotor as the objective function, calculates and searches the optimal solution, and studies the influence of temperature rise control curve on the maximum thermal stress of the rotor. The results show that the optimized temperature rise control curve can effectively reduce the maximum thermal stress of the rotor and shorten the quick start time. At the same time, in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed optimal design method for the temperature rise curve of the quick start of the rotor, a test rig for measuring the thermal shock stress of the rotor is built. The theoretical analysis results are verified by comparing the maximum thermal stress of the rotor under the temperature rise curve before and after optimization.